Group Members

Clowers Research Group (October 2018)

Brian Clowers_1139

Brian Clowers, Ph.D.

Fulmer Hall Rm. 532
Pullman, WA 99164-4630
Ph. (509) 33five-four300
brian.clowers <at>


  • Scientist, Pacific Northwest National Lab, 2006-2012
  • Post-Doctoral Fellowship, UC-Davis, 2006
  • Ph.D. Washington State University, 2005



Dr.-Ing. Tobias Reinecke

E-Mail: Tobias.Reinecke<at>


O. Schmitz, S.K. Hampel, H. Rabe, T. Reinecke, I. Rolfes (2011): Differential Amplifier Characterization Using Mixed-Mode Scattering Parameters Obtained From True and Virtual Differential Measurements, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol.59, no.1, pp.132-142, 2011

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, V. Schulte, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2013): Quantification of edema in human brain tissue by determination of electromagnetic parameters, IEEE Sensors ’13, pp. 1390-1393, Baltimore, USA, November 2013

C. Orlob, T. Reinecke, E. Denicke, B. Geck, I. Rolfes (2013): Compact Unfocused Antenna Setup for X-Band Free-Space Dielectric Measurements Based on Line-Network-Network Calibration Method, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol.62, no.7, pp.1982 -1989, 2013

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, S. Ahrens, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2014): Permittivity measurements for the quantification of edema in human brain tissue – Open-ended coaxial and coplanar probes for fast tissue scanning, IEEE Sensors ’14, pp. 681-683, Valencia, Spain, November 2014

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, H. Spehlbrink, S. Guenther, M. Klintschar, and S. Zimmermann (2014): Open-ended coaxial probe for the quantification of edema in human brain tissue, Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 204, pp. 763-769, 2014

A. Heptner, T. Reinecke, J. Langejuergen and S. Zimmermann (2014): A gated atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometer–time-of-flight mass spectrometer, J. of Chromatography A, vol. 1356, pp. 241-248, 2014

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, S. Ahrens, Y. Doroshenko, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2015): A novel coplanar probe design for fast scanning of edema in human brain tissue via dielectric measurements, Sensors and Ac-tuators B, vol. 220, pp. 522-527, 2015

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, V. Schulte, T. Scheper and S. Zimmermann (2015): Low-cost Sensor System for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Cell Growth in Disposable Bioreactors, Eurosensors XXIX, Procedia Engineer-ing, vol. 120, pp. 548-551, Freiburg, Germany, September 2015

T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk, A. Ahrens, C.-R. Raddatz, C. Thoben and S. Zim-mermann (2015): A compact high-resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer, Talanta, vol. 150, pp. 1-6, 2016

T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk, A. Heptner, D. Niebuhr, S. Böttger and S. Zimmer-mann (2016): A compact high-resolution X-ray ion mobility spectrometer, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 87, pp. 053120, 2016

A. Kuklya, T. Reinecke, F. Uteschil, K. Kerpen, S. Zimmermann and U. Telgheder (2016): X-ray ionization differential ion mobility spectrometry, Talanta, vol. 162, pp. 159-166, 2016

A. Heptner, N. Angerstein, T. Reinecke, E. Bunert, A.T. Kirk, I. Niedzwiecki and S. Zimmermann (2016): Improving the analytical performance of ion mobility spectrometer using a non-radioactive electron source, Int. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 175-182, 2016

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, M. Frickhöffer, T. Scheper and S. Zimmermann (2016): Non-Invasive Online Monitoring of Cell Growth in Disposable Bio-reactors with a Planar Coil, Eurosensors XXX, Procedia Engineering, vol. 168, pp. 582-585, Budapest, Hungary, September 2016

E. Bunert, A. Heptner, T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk and S. Zimmermann (2017): Shutterless ion mobility spectrometer with fast pulsed electron source, Re-view of Scientific Instruments, vol. 88, pp. 024102/1-7, 2017

Heptner, A., Reinecke, T., Angerstein, N., Zimmermann, S. (2017): A novel ion selective gas sensor based on pulsed atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and ion-ion-recombination, Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 246, pp. 252-257

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, M. Sobocinski, H. Suhr, K. Bakes, D. Solle, H. Jantunen, T. Scheper, S. Zimmermann (2017): Continuous noninvasive monitoring of cell growth in disposable bioreactors, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 251, pp. 1009-1017

C. Thoben, T. Reinecke, J. Martin, L. Kahrs, J. Gaa, S. Mueller, K. Bakes, T. Ortmaier, S. Zimmermann (2017): Realtime monitoring of the position of a cochlea implant during insertion in an internal ear phantom, Technisches Messen, vol. 84 (1), pp. 98-101

Graduate Students:


Pearl Kwantwi-Barima, 4th Year PhD Student


Kwantwi-Barima, P; Ouyang, H.; Hogan, C. J.; Clowers, B. H. Tuning Mobility Separation Factors of Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products via Selective Ion-Neutral Clustering. Anal. Chem., 892017, 12416–12424

Kwantwi-Barima, P; Hogan, C. J.; Clowers, B. H. Deducing Proton-Bound Heterodimer Association Energies from Shifts in Ion Mobility Arrival Time Distributions. J. Phys. Chem. A, 2019, Accepted for Publication. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b11183

Cameron Naylor, 3rd Year PhD Student


Reinecke, T.; Naylor, C. N.; Clowers, B. H. Ion Multiplexing: Maximizing Throughput and Signal to Noise Ratio for Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2019, Accepted for Publication. DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2019.03.014


Nate Buzitis, 2nd Year PhD Student

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