Group Members

Group_Photo_2017Clowers Research Group (May 2017)

Brian Clowers_1139

Brian Clowers, Ph.D.

Fulmer Hall Rm. 532
Pullman, WA 99164-4630
Ph. (509) 33five-four300
brian.clowers <at>


  • Scientist, Pacific Northwest National Lab, 2006-2012
  • Post-Doctoral Fellowship, UC-Davis, 2006
  • Ph.D. Washington State University, 2005



Dr.-Ing. Tobias Reinecke

E-Mail: Tobias.Reinecke<at>


O. Schmitz, S.K. Hampel, H. Rabe, T. Reinecke, I. Rolfes (2011): Differential Amplifier Characterization Using Mixed-Mode Scattering Parameters Obtained From True and Virtual Differential Measurements, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol.59, no.1, pp.132-142, 2011

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, V. Schulte, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2013): Quantification of edema in human brain tissue by determination of electromagnetic parameters, IEEE Sensors ’13, pp. 1390-1393, Baltimore, USA, November 2013

C. Orlob, T. Reinecke, E. Denicke, B. Geck, I. Rolfes (2013): Compact Unfocused Antenna Setup for X-Band Free-Space Dielectric Measurements Based on Line-Network-Network Calibration Method, Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol.62, no.7, pp.1982 -1989, 2013

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, S. Ahrens, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2014): Permittivity measurements for the quantification of edema in human brain tissue – Open-ended coaxial and coplanar probes for fast tissue scanning, IEEE Sensors ’14, pp. 681-683, Valencia, Spain, November 2014

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, H. Spehlbrink, S. Guenther, M. Klintschar, and S. Zimmermann (2014): Open-ended coaxial probe for the quantification of edema in human brain tissue, Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 204, pp. 763-769, 2014

A. Heptner, T. Reinecke, J. Langejuergen and S. Zimmermann (2014): A gated atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometer–time-of-flight mass spectrometer, J. of Chromatography A, vol. 1356, pp. 241-248, 2014

T. Reinecke, L. Hagemeier, S. Ahrens, Y. Doroshenko, M. Klintschar and S. Zimmermann (2015): A novel coplanar probe design for fast scanning of edema in human brain tissue via dielectric measurements, Sensors and Ac-tuators B, vol. 220, pp. 522-527, 2015

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, V. Schulte, T. Scheper and S. Zimmermann (2015): Low-cost Sensor System for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Cell Growth in Disposable Bioreactors, Eurosensors XXIX, Procedia Engineer-ing, vol. 120, pp. 548-551, Freiburg, Germany, September 2015

T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk, A. Ahrens, C.-R. Raddatz, C. Thoben and S. Zim-mermann (2015): A compact high-resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometer, Talanta, vol. 150, pp. 1-6, 2016

T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk, A. Heptner, D. Niebuhr, S. Böttger and S. Zimmer-mann (2016): A compact high-resolution X-ray ion mobility spectrometer, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 87, pp. 053120, 2016

A. Kuklya, T. Reinecke, F. Uteschil, K. Kerpen, S. Zimmermann and U. Telgheder (2016): X-ray ionization differential ion mobility spectrometry, Talanta, vol. 162, pp. 159-166, 2016

A. Heptner, N. Angerstein, T. Reinecke, E. Bunert, A.T. Kirk, I. Niedzwiecki and S. Zimmermann (2016): Improving the analytical performance of ion mobility spectrometer using a non-radioactive electron source, Int. J. for Ion Mobility Spectrometry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 175-182, 2016

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, M. Frickhöffer, T. Scheper and S. Zimmermann (2016): Non-Invasive Online Monitoring of Cell Growth in Disposable Bio-reactors with a Planar Coil, Eurosensors XXX, Procedia Engineering, vol. 168, pp. 582-585, Budapest, Hungary, September 2016

E. Bunert, A. Heptner, T. Reinecke, A.T. Kirk and S. Zimmermann (2017): Shutterless ion mobility spectrometer with fast pulsed electron source, Re-view of Scientific Instruments, vol. 88, pp. 024102/1-7, 2017

Heptner, A., Reinecke, T., Angerstein, N., Zimmermann, S. (2017): A novel ion selective gas sensor based on pulsed atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and ion-ion-recombination, Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 246, pp. 252-257

T. Reinecke, P. Biechele, M. Sobocinski, H. Suhr, K. Bakes, D. Solle, H. Jantunen, T. Scheper, S. Zimmermann (2017): Continuous noninvasive monitoring of cell growth in disposable bioreactors, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 251, pp. 1009-1017

C. Thoben, T. Reinecke, J. Martin, L. Kahrs, J. Gaa, S. Mueller, K. Bakes, T. Ortmaier, S. Zimmermann (2017): Realtime monitoring of the position of a cochlea implant during insertion in an internal ear phantom, Technisches Messen, vol. 84 (1), pp. 98-101

Graduate Students:



Austen Davis, 5th Year PhD Student


Clowers, B. H.; Siems, W. F.; Yu, Z.; Davis, A. L. A two-phase approach to fourier transform ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Analyst, 2015, 140(20), 6862–6870

Choy, Cindy J.; Ley, Corinne R.; Davis, Austen L.; Backer, Brian S.; Geruntho, Jonathan J.; Clowers, Brian H.; Berkman, Clifford E. Second-generation tunable pH-sensitive phosphoramidate-based linkers for controlled release. Bioconjugate Chemistry201627(9), 2206-2213

Liu, Wenjie; Davis, Austen Lambert; Siems, William F.;Yin, Du-Lin; Clowers, Brian H.; Hill, Jr., Herbert H. Ambient pressure inverse ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry2017, Ahead of print. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03727

Davis, Austen L.; Liu, Wenjie; Siems, William F.; Clowers, Brian H. Correlation Ion Mobility Spectrometry. The Analyst, 2017, Advance Article. DOI: 10.1039/C6AN02249A

Davis, Austen L.; Clowers, Brian H. Stabilization of gas-phase uranyl complexes enables rapid speciation using electrospray ionization and ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Talanta2017, Ahead of print. DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2017.07.090

Kelley, Morgan P.; Davis, Austen; Clowers, Brian; Clark, Aurora E.; Clark, Sue B.; Acceleration of metal–ligand complexation kinetics by electrospray ionization. Analyst2017, Ahead of print. DOI: 10.1039/C7AN01142C



Zhihao (Joe) Yu, 5th Year PhD Student


Clowers, B. H.; Siems, W. F.; Yu, Z.; Davis, A. L. A two-phase approach to fourier transform ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Analyst 2015, 140(20), 6862–6870

Craft, R. M.; Haas, A. E.; Wiley, J. L.; Yu, Z.; Clowers, B. H. Gonadal hormone modulation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and metabolism in female versus male rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 2016, Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2016.09.006

Yu, Zhihao; Miller, Haylea C.; Puzon, Geoffrey J.; Clowers, Brian H. Development of Untargeted Metabolomics Methods for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2017, Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.6b05969

Britch, Stevie C.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Yu, Zhihao; Clowers, Brian H.; Craft, Rebecca M. Cannabidiol-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol interactions on acute pain and locomotor activity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2017, Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.046



Kelsey Morrison, 4th Year PhD Student


Morrison, K. A.; Siems, W. F.; Clowers, B. H. Augmenting Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Using a Frequency Modulated Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Anal. Chem. 2016, 88 (6), 3121–3129

Morrison, K. A.; Bendiak, B. K.; Clowers, B. H. Enhanced Mixture Separations of Metal Adducted Tetrasaccharides Using Frequency Encoded Ion Mobility Separations and Tandem Mass Spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2016, Accepted for Publication. DOI: 10.1007/s13361-016-1505-y

Morrison, K. A.; Clowers, B. H. Differential Fragmentation of Mobility-Selected Glycans via Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2017, Accepted for Publication. DOI: 10.1007/s13361-017-1621-3



Pearl Kwantwi-Barima, 3rd Year PhD Student

Kwantwi-Barima, P; Ouyang, H.; Hogan, C. J.; Clowers, B. H. Tuning Mobility Separation Factors of Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products via Selective Ion-Neutral Clustering. Anal. Chem.2017, Accepted for Publication. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b03518

Peyton Nosbusch

Peyton Nosbusch, 3rd Year PhD Student


Drew Pemberton, 2nd Year PhD Student

Caroline Naylor

Caroline Naylor, 2nd Year PhD Student

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